About the NTE Profiler
The Profiler includes data for all subscribing Local Government Areas (LGAs) in addition to a series of other LGAs that are considered some of the largest or strongest growing in Australia. Downloadable versions of the NTE Profiler will soon be made available on this website.
The Profiler shows changes in the size and scale of the Night Time Economy (NTE) and total economy for a selected area or indicator (establishments, employment or sales turnover) over the 2009 to today. This available in both chart and table formats.
For original member LGAs, the charts show the indexed change since 2009. For those LGAs joining the NTE research at a later stage, the charts show indexed change since the year of joining (e.g. 2012 or 2015). Indexed data is a common means of comparing change by normalising different indicators to a common starting point (in this case for example, 2009 = 100). Subsequent change in different indicators is then shown at the same scale relative to this starting point.
For example, the number of establishments in Core NTE Entertainment activities is usually far more significant than in Core NTE Drink activities. In this case, indexed data means the change and trends in each sector can be compared more easily than if absolute values were shown in the chart.
The Night Time Economy (NTE) refers to economic activity which occurs at establishments primarily between the hours of 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. It should be noted that NTE activities are not restricted to this period, but the definitions used are designed to capture those business activities in which the majority of sales turnover is generated during these times. The NTE as a whole can be broken down further into the sectors of Core, Non-Core and Supply. These NTE sectors are defined using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) system, which are aligned with definitions used in previous work in the United Kingdom and New Zealand.
A similar approach has been adopted by the Greater London Authority (GLA) for the purpose of measuring London’s NTE with equivalent data from the UK’s Office for National Statistics. The GLA’s analysis utilised data from the UK’s Labour Force Survey to understand which industries have the highest proportion of employees working at night. This was used to select industries with a higher propensity of night time workers and group them into like activities (e.g. cultural and leisure), which align well with the ANZSICs below.
The ANZSIC codes used to define Core, Non-Core and Supply and their sub-sectors are provided below. Core NTE refers to the activities that tend to provide primary establishment services to NTE leisure users in the evening (6pm to midnight) and night-time (midnight to 6am). The Core NTE can be split into sub-sectors of Drink, Entertainment and Food.
It should be noted that temporal breakdown of economic activity is not recorded in official data sources. Therefore, while ANZSICs have been selected based on businesses with a propensity to operate at night, establishment counts may include businesses that operate solely during, or for part of, the day. As such, employment and sales turnover figures may also include daytime activity.
Table 1: Core NTE activities
||Cafes and Restaurants
||Takeaway Food Services
||Pubs, Taverns and Bars
||Motion Picture and Video Activities*
||Creative and Performing Arts Activities
||Sports and Physical Recreation Activities
||Horse and Dog Racing Activities
||Amusement and Other Recreation Activities
||Brothel Keeping and Prostitution
For all LGAs except City of Sydney, Motion Picture and Video Activities (ANZSIC 551) is captured as a Supply NTE activity. For City of Sydney, the Floor and Employment Survey in the original Sydney Cost Benefit Analysis work (2011) allowed further disaggregation of this ANZSIC to reach Motion Picture Exhibition (ANZSIC 5513), i.e. cinemas, meaning it can still be presented in the following years. This level of ANZSIC detail is not normally available at LGA level via ABS request due to small numbers that would not pass confidentiality rules.
It should be noted that each state and territory has its own liquor licensing regulations/laws. As such, liquor retailing activity may be more likely to occur during the night in some states and territories than in others.
ANZSIC 911 (Sports and Physical Recreation Activities) includes ANZSIC 9114 (Sports and Physical Recreation Administrative Service) and so could potentially over estimate night time related activity within this industry. ANZSIC 9114 accounts for 5% of establishments within ANZSIC 911, although associated sales and employment may be higher.
ANZSIC 920 (Gambling Activities) includes ANZSIC 9209 (Other Gambling Activities), which captures internet gambling operation and TAB operation, that may occur during the day.
Non-Core NTE refers to establishments that primarily operate during the day but may provide integral services to the Core NTE, such as public and private transport, hotels and other forms of accommodation, retail services and public services such as policing, health services, parking and lighting. These tend to be presented at a higher aggregate level due to availability of data at the detailed level. Non-Core indicates the scale of the supply chain with which the Core NTE is linked.
Table 2: Non-Core NTE activities
||Public Order and Safety Services
||Libraries and Archives
||Architectural, Engineering and Technical Services
||Adult, Community and Other Education
||Supermarket and Grocery Stores
||Specialised Food Retailing
||Waste Collection, Treatment and Disposal Services
||Central Government Administration
||Local Government Administration
||Laundry and Dry Cleaning Services
||Market Research and Statistical Services
||Electrical and Electronic Goods Retailing
||Recreational Goods Retailing
||Clothing, Footwear and Personal Accessory Retailing
||Pharmaceutical and Other Store Based Retailing
||Road Passenger Transport
||Rail Passenger Transport
||Water Passenger Transport
As with Non-Core NTE, Supply NTE establishment types tend to operate during the day but are part of the Core NTE supply chain through the production or wholesaling of food, drink or entertainment products. Similar to Non-Core NTE, these activities are presented as an aggregate.
Table 3: Supply NTE activities
||Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing
||Liquor and Tobacco Product Wholesaling
||Sound Recording and Music Publishing
||Food Product Manufacturing
The Profiler is based on data acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) via bespoke request from their Counts of Australian Businesses, including Entries and Exits (CABEE), June 2017 to June 2021 dataset (ABS Catalogue 8165.0). Through a collaborative approach with the ABS, the bespoke request covered the ANZSICs set out above for all LGAs that are available within the profiler.
This dataset was analysed and modelled using additional ABS datasets including labour force data (ABS Catalogue 6202.0) and industry turnover data (ABS Catalogue 8155.0), following the same methodology as used in previous reports in order to ensure as consistent a result as possible over time.
LGA Boundary Notes and Changes
Please note that Byron Shire boundary is affected by a change in ABS methodology introduced in the CABEE 2017 dataset, which affects 2016 and 2017 figures. This change by ABS means that data can now be provided by non-standard geographies (i.e. LGA, postcode, etc.), whereas previously ABS could only provide data at Statistical Area 2 (SA2) boundaries from which LGA boundaries had to be constructed. This approach correlates for other LGAs except in the case of Byron Shire, where the LGA boundary is particularly small and the use of SA2s covers a larger area than the LGA, meaning that in the past more businesses have been counted in the data than are actually in the LGA (approximately 40% more). This should be borne in mind when reviewing trends in data, particularly between 2015 and 2016.
Please note that the City of Parramatta boundary was revised in 2016, which affects 2016 and 2017 figures. This change saw parts of the previous Parramatta boundary combined with parts of The Hills Shire, Auburn City, Holroyd City and Hornsby Shire. While figures for this LGA do not look too different between 2015 and 2016, it should be noted that there is a disconnect in the time series between these years and this should be borne in mind when reviewing data over this period.
Please note that the City of Perth boundary was revised in 2016, which saw part of the City of Subiaco absorbed within the LGA and affects 2016 and 2017 figures as a result. This is because the CABEE 2017 dataset uses the latest LGA boundaries and carries this back through earlier reporting years (back to 2013).
In addition to this boundary change, City of Perth is affected by a change in ABS methodology introduced in the CABEE 2017 dataset, which means data can now be provided by non-standard geographies (i.e. LGA, postcode, etc.). Previously, ABS could only provide data at Statistical Area 2 (SA2) boundaries and LGA boundaries had to be constructed using these building blocks. This approach correlates for other LGAs except in the case of City of Perth where the LGA boundary is particularly small and the use of SA2s covers a larger area than the LGA, meaning that in the past more businesses have been counted in the data than are actually in the LGA (approximately 40% more). This should also be considered when reviewing trends in data, particularly between 2015 and 2016.
Key points regarding the ABS CABEE dataset for 2020-21
The Australian Bureau of Statistics has noted the following impacts on the CABEE series as a result of COVID-19, which should be borne in mind when reviewing results:
- Fewer business exits have occurred during 2020-21 compared to 2019-20 (12.0% vs 12.8%)
- Many businesses have re-categorised from non-employing to employing. In 2020-21 employing businesses increased 13.6% while non-employing businesses decreased by 2.2%
- There has been a marked increase in businesses updating their ANZSIC information on the Australia Bureau Register through 2020-21 leading to movements in businesses between ANZSICs
- CABEE data for the September and December 2021 quarters shows a significant increase in the number of business entries in Victoria, with the entry rate substantially higher than other states and territories
- The CABEE data was updated to exclude all superannuation funds – consisting of all units in ANZSIC class 6330 – in an effort to align with international standards and produce a more realistic count of actively trading businesses. This has reduced business counts by c100,000 across Australia. As such, historical numbers have been adjusted to the new 2021 figures.
Other important notes about the data
Some caution should be taken when interpreting the data in the NTE Profiler, particularly at ANZSIC level where small numbers of establishments can be counted. The CABEE data on which establishment counts are based are subject to ‘perturbation’ by ABS, designed to prevent the release of confidential information. This means that some cells in the data tables supplied by ABS may have been randomly adjusted. Care should be taken in analysing estimates containing small numbers of establishments, and no reliance should be placed on estimates based on small numbers of establishments due to the effects of the perturbation process.
Only actively trading establishments with an Australian Business Number (ABN) are included in CABEE data. Some actively trading establishments are not registered for an ABN because they have no obligations under Goods and Services Tax (GST) legislation or are under the threshold for registration and have chosen not to register; these businesses are excluded. Legally defined charitable institutions, social and sporting clubs, and trade unions and other associations (as well as some other types of legal entities) are excluded. Additionally, some ANZSIC codes are excluded from CABEE data, including 7711 Police Services and 7713 Fire Protection and Other Emergency Services which would otherwise fall into the Non-Core NTE definition.
Establishment counts are based on annual snapshots of data at 30th June each year. Counts may include establishments which have recently ceased trading, and/or establishments which appear to have ceased trading but remain active (including those which are tax exempt or recalcitrant in reporting over a period of time), and/or newly started establishments which have submitted tax returns. Most establishments are counted as a single unit, at the location of their registered address, or at the address with the highest employment. Establishments operating from multiple locations may only be counted once. Conversely, establishments whose legal structure means they have registered for separate ABNs may be counted multiple times. Irrespective of any diversity of business activity undertaken, each establishment is classified to a single ANZSIC code based on the main source of industry value added (sales of goods and services, wages and salaries or number of employees as a proxy), which is generally based on a description provided by the business. ANZSIC classification may therefore not reflect all activities of any one establishment, particularly where different activities are undertaken at different locations and the establishment is counted as a single unit.
As CABEE establishment counts are used to derive employment and sales turnover estimates, any potential errors by ABS in the CABEE data will be carried over to these other indicators. In addition, the methodology used to derive employment and sales turnover estimates may possibly introduce some inconsistencies as it utilises modelled employment headcount and sales turnover estimate figures at ANZSIC level. While CABEE data are provided by employment size-band and sales turnover size-band, the level of detail available means the modelling process cannot take account of any variation within each band.
An accompanying written report, which summarises key figures and trends in the NTE for Australia, the states and territories and the current members of CCCLM, is available to download here:
The Profiler is managed by the Council of Capital City Lord Mayors Further information on the Profiler and the data it presents is available from [email protected].
The original methodology of mapping the NTE in Australia was developed by Terry Bevan, Alistair Turnham (of MAKE Associates) and Andrew License while working for TBR Limited. It was used in a number of projects for CCCLM between 2009 and 2014. The methodology was used by Ortus Economic Research Ltd and Deanzod Ltd to develop this Profiler for the 2015 release. The current update of the NTE mapping was prepared by Terry Bevan, Andrew License and Anna Edwards, now of Ingenium Research, with the Profiler being updated by Matt License.